An authentic Shiden-Kai from the 343 squadron is displayed at a local museum in Shikoku, Japan. When the Shidens encountered VBF-17 Hellcats, three aircraft were lost on both sides in the initial attack; one Hellcat and two Shiden were shot down by enemy ground fire, two fighters collided in mid-air, and one Hellcat crashed while trying to land. In 1959 it was donated to the Museum through the cooperation of the San Diego Squadron of the Air Force Association. The Kawanishi N1K Kyōfū (強風 "strong wind", Allied reporting name "Rex") was an Imperial Japanese Navy floatplane fighter.The Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden (紫電 "Violet Lightning") was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service land-based version of the N1K. Kawanishi Shiden-Kai Model 21, Kawanishi N1K2-J (code name "George") Marine Interceptor-Fighter. ", Werneth, Ron. [citation needed] Its flight characteristics were treacherous and required an experienced pilot.[6]. Four 250 kg bombs. Kawanishi engineers, however, had proposed in late 1941 that the N1K would be the basis of a formidable land-based fighter too, and a land-based version was produced as a private venture by the company. [9] However, a close friend of Lieutenant Kaneyoshi Muto, pilot Saburo Sakai, states in his autobiography that this combat one versus twelve combat did take place, with Muto at the hands of a Zero fighter.[10]. January 1944 to December 1944 = 824 planes N1K2-J Shiden-KAI. The airplane proved to be one of the The unit was issued the best equipment available and was also equipped with the new Nakajima C6N Saiun, codenamed "Myrt" long-range reconnaissance aircraft. Photographs of the six—including Takashi Oshibuchi, commander of the 701 Hikotai, and Kaneyoshi Muto—are displayed respectfully under the aircraft engine. Many other Shidens were destroyed by American fighters over another airport, where they tried to land because they were low on fuel. The variant was named the "Shiden-Kai" (紫電改), Kai standing for Modified. The Nakajima Homare was powerful, but had been rushed into production before it was sufficiently developed, and proved troublesome. April 1943 to December 1943 = 71 planes The N1K2s soon got their revenge, when VFM-123 Corsairs were surprised by Shidens, initially mistaken for Hellcats, with a 30-minute aerial combat ensuing. In the end, the 407 Hikotai lost six fighters versus downing eight VBF-17 Hellcats. The new 343rd Kokutai consisted of the best pilots, including Muto. The "Shiden" holds a unique place in the history of airplane construction. It is either on loan or in storage. On 18 March 1945, one of the "Myrts"' managed to spot U.S. carriers en route to Japan. In respect of the N1K2-J the interior colour match cited by Peter Fearis in his excellent monograph on the type self-published under the 'Kaburaya' title in 2000 (Kaburaya Books Modellers Guide Number One: Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden Kai "George") is FS 34258. N1K1-Ja - Shiden Model 11A (甲, Kō) January 1945 to July 1945 = 332 planes a U-shaped tube containing mercury, was an important factor fighter was produced during the last year of WW II. New fuselage and tail, 8 built; N1K2-J Shiden KAI (Violet Thunder, Modified) Navy Land Based Interceptor, Model 21: first model of series; N1K2-Ja,Model 21A: Fighter-bomber version. The N1K2-Ja is painted as an aircraft in the Yokosuka Kokutai (squadron), an evaluation and test unit. Kawanishi N1K2-J, probably N1K4-J Shiden Kai Model 32—only two prototypes were built. The second N1K2-Ja (s/n 5312), a fighter-bomber variant equipped with wing mounts to carry bombs, is on display in the Air Power gallery at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. Description. Kawanishi N1K1-J 'George' with cannon pods The N1K was a mid-winged radial engined powered monoplane, with a large central float and wing tip stabilisers. The float fighter "Mighty Wind" Model 11 (Kyofu 11 Gata or Kyofu Model 11 or Rex 11) was designated N1K1. At least three Shiden Kai aircraft survive in American museums. There is a possibility that these detailed designations are of post-war origins, as well, and were never used during the war. [8] After the action, reporters fabricated a story in which Muto was the sole airman facing 12 enemy aircraft. The Kawanishi was among the few Japanese fighters that could stand up to the best enemy types, including Hellcats and Corsairs. N1K2-J Shiden KAI Model 21: Navy Land Based Interceptor, first model of series with a Nakajima Homare 21 engine. The 343° was disbanded on 14 August 1945, when the Emperor ordered surrender. Many of the 343 Kokutai Shiden force were N1K2s. This aircraft was displayed outside for many years in a children's playground in San Diego, suffering considerable corrosion, and had become seriously deteriorated. Four 250 kg (550 lb) bombs. The Kawanishi Shiden may be the only case in history of an excellent land-based fighter (one of the best the Japanese fielded during WWII) being derived from a seaplane. Due to production difficulties and damage caused by B-29 Superfortress raids on Japanese factories, only 415 fighters were produced. Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden (Violet Lightning) and N1K2-J Shiden Kai Allied Code Name: "George" (Scanned from René J. Francillion "Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War" - Putnam - 1979) The N1K2-J Shiden Kai on display in the National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida. Background Kawanishi spent the next year resolving various problems with the design before navy pilots took the first Shidens into combat early in 1944. Kawanishi N1K Kyofu Navy Fighter Seaplane: Rex 1942 97 IJN: Kawanishi N1K1-J/N1K2-J Shiden Navy Land-Based Interceptor: George 1943 1435 IJN: Kawasaki Ki-10 Army Type 95 Fighter: Perry 1935 588 IJA: Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter: Nick 1941 1370 IJA Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien Army Type 3 Fighter: Tony 1943 3159 IJA The Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden (紫電 "Violet Lightning") was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service land-based version of the N1K. Prototypes were evaluated by the Navy, and since the aircraft was faster than the Zero and had a much longer range than the Mitsubishi J2M Raiden, it was ordered into production as the N1K1-J, the -J indicating a land-based fighter modification of the original floatplane fighter. The factory delivered a total of 1,007. N1K2-Ja and Shiden Model 21 Kou are more detailed and specific terms. This object is not on display at the National Air and Space Museum. Of the 10 Japanese aircraft the Americans claimed, not one was effectively downed. Along with high speed, the fighters were very agile with a roll rate of 82°/sec at 386 km/h (240 mph). [citation needed] Apart from engine problems and the landing gear the flight test program showed that the aircraft was promising. Serial number 5312 was found in the most locations, and is the number now cited. The N1K1 entered service in early 1944 and proved highly effective against American fighters. Construction materials involved the use of non-critical materials. It was reported that more "Georges" were lost to this than to Allied forces. The Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden (“ Violet Lightning “, Allied Code Name: George) and N1K2-J Shiden Kai (Modified) are regarded as the best land based fighter operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War Two. TOTAL 1,007, The N1K2-J was produced mainly in 1944 and 1945, with deliveries to the navy as follows: N1K2-J Model 21 The aircraft retained the mid-mounted wing of the floatplane, and combined with the large propeller necessitated a long, stalky main landing gear. The Japanese navy named the new fighter N1K1-J Shiden, and a test pilot made the first flight on December 27, 1942. "Rebirth of a Forgotten Japanese Navy Fighter. Another problem was that, due to poor heat treatment of the wheels, their failure upon landing would often result in the landing gear being simply ripped off. Graceful as a sumo wrestler, the N1K1-J Shiden was a private development by Kawanishi of their air superiority floatplane fighter, the N1K Kyofu (Strong Wind) "Rex", into a land-based interceptor. On 4 May, another 24 Shidens were sent in Kikusui N.5. Since there was no alternative, the Homare engine was retained, even though its reliability problems had not been fully corrected. The N1K-J evenly matched the F6F Hellcat and was a better match than the A6M Zero for such aircraft as the F4U Corsair and P-51 Mustang. Many parts had to be reverse engineered by the Museum's restoration staff. Share your thoughts, experiences and the tales behind the art. which of these plane(s) are american The N1K possessed a heavy armament and, unusual for a Japanese fighter, could absorb considerable battle damage. due to engine development difficulties. The 343 Kokutai's Shiden-Kai, possibly the one flown by ace-pilot Kaneyoshi Muto, displayed at the museum on Shikoku island. Production Low wings, engine cover and landing gear modified. Their weaponry comprising four 20 mm cannons in the wings was highly effective. The Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden (紫電 "Violet Lightning") was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service land-based version of the N1K. The N1K1-J was produced between 1943 and 1945 with the deliveries to the navy as follows: Captured Kawanishi N1K2-Js (note US markings) having their Homare engines run up by former JNAF groundcrew. Assigned the Allied codename "George", the N1K-J was considered by both its pilots and opponents to be one of the finest land-based fighters flown by the Japanese during World War II.[4][5]. Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, National Museum of the United States Air Force, http://airandspace.si.edu/collections/artifact.cfm?id=A19830237000, World War II Allied reporting names for Japanese aircraft, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Kawanishi_N1K?oldid=4784209, Galbiati, Fabio. Assigned the Allied codename "George", the N1K-J was considered by both its pilots and opponents to be one of the finest land-based fighters flown by … Problems resulted in very few N1K2-J aircraft being produced, but the Shiden-Kai proved to be one of the best "dogfighters" fielded by either side. As a bomber interceptor, the N1K2-J was less successful, hampered by a poor rate of climb and reduced engine performance at high altitude.[11][12]. [17], The third example is owned by the National Air and Space Museum but was restored by the Champlin Fighter Museum at Falcon Field, Mesa, Arizona, in return for the right to display the aircraft at Falcon Field for 10 years after restoration. His group shot down … Only four days after the Shiden's first test flight, a complete redesign was begun, the N1K2-J. initial production problems, plus The U.S. also had heavy losses, with 14 fighters and seven pilots, and 11 other attack aircraft. Platz 1/144 N1K2-J Shiden-Kai Interceptor By Matt Bittner. Because of only 428 were produced. They were, however, mechanically unreliable. The N1K1-J retained the basic mid-winged configuration, but the Kasei engine used in the floatplane was replaced with the eighteen cylinder Nakajima Homare radial engine. Powerplant N1K1-J Prototype: Model: Nakajima Homare 11 In every case, the Shiden, especially the Kai version, proved to be a capable dogfighter with the firepower, agility and rugged structure. Kawanishi N1K1-J/N1K2-J Shiden "Violet Lightning" Type: Single-seat land-based intersecptor Origin: Kawanishi Allied Code Name: George First Flight: December 27, 1942 Service Delivery: Early 1944 Final Delivery: N/A Number Produced: N/A. N1K2-Ja Shiden KAI Model 21A: Fighter-bomber version. Assigned the reporting name " George ", the N1K-J was considered by both its pilots and opponents to be one of the finest land-based fighters flown by … Kawanishi N1K1-J, N1K2-J Shiden Kai (George) Technical Information. This was the Shiden Model 21 Kou (N1K2-J Kou or N1K2-Ja in all English). Factories that were to produce the N1K2-J, in addition to Kawanishi were Aichi, Mitsubishi, Hiro Naval Depot, Showa and Omura Naval Depot. Piloted by First Lieutenant Kanno Tokushima, operating from Matsuyama, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku, in the spring of 1945. N1K2-K Shiden Kai Rensen 1, Model A: Fighter Trainer, modified from N1K-J Series with two seats, operative or factory conversions. One is at the National Museum of Naval Aviation in Pensacola, Florida. Constructed by Kawanishi: 393, Mitsubishi: 9, Aichi: 1, Showa Hikoki: 1, Ohmura Navy Arsenal: 10, Hiro Navy Arsenal: 1. The requirement to carry a bulky, heavy float essentially crippled the N1K against contemporary American fighters. The George was a derivative of the N1K1 Kyofu (Rex), a rather unusual case wherein the origins of this land based fighter came from a seaplane. "Battaglia Aerea del 19 Marzo su Kure. Each N1K1-J and N1K2-J aircraft had only one large droppable fuel tank under the fuselage body. In February 1945, Lieutenant Kaneyoshi Muto, flying a N1K2-J as part of a group of at least 10 expert Japanese fighters, faced seven U.S. Navy Hellcats of VF-82 in the sky over Japan. His group shot down four Hellcats with no loss to themselves. Four 250 kg bombs. At the end of the day, 343° declared 52 victories, U.S. fighters 63. The wings were moved to a low position, which permitted the use of shorter, conventional undercarriage, the fuselage was lengthened, the tail redesigned, and the whole aircraft was made much simpler to produce, with over a third of the parts of the Shiden. N1K2-J Prototypes: N1K1-Jb redesigned. ". The Kawanishi was among the few Japanese fighters that could stand up to the best enemy types, including Hellcats and Corsairs. Background The George was a derivative of the N1K1 Kyofu (Rex), a rather unusual case wherein the origins of this land based fighter came from a seaplane. N1K2-J Shiden KAI (Violet Thunder, Modified) Navy Land Based Interceptor, Model 21: first model of series N1K2-Ja,Model 21A: Fighter-bomber version. As for the Shiden Model 21, the first 100 planes assembled at Naruo could carry two 30- or 60-kg bombs or two 250-kg bombs.Beginning with the 101st plane, facilities were provided to permit the carrying of four 30- or 60-kg bombs or two 250-kg bombs. (in Italian). Using the same developed airframe, the N1K1-J was born from the existing N1K1 floatplane and featured an all-new Nakajima radial piston engine along with a newly-engineered landing gear system. Four 250 kg (550 lb) bombs. Källa: Kawanishi N1K2-J på Wiki Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex" floatplane fighters found post-war at a Japanese Naval air base. The Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden ("Violet Lightning") was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service land-based version of the N1K. If you use the project designations, you will not be wrong: N1K1, N1K1-J, and N1K2-J. A prototype flew on 1 January 1944 and after completing Navy trials in April, the N1K2-J was rushed into production. The Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden (紫電 "Violet Lightning") was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service land-based version of the N1K. The Kawanishi N1K Kyōfū (強風 "strong wind", Allied reporting name "Rex") was an Imperial Japanese Navy floatplane fighter. Then the other Shiden dove on the Hellcats, downing another one. The modified and improved version that followed was designated "Violet Lightning" Model 21 or Shiden 21 Gata or Shiden Kai or N1K2-J or George 21. The N1K did have a vice: If handled roughly, it could easily enter an unrecoverable spin. This Japanese [16] In October 2008 the aircraft was returned to display following an extensive eight year restoration. best "all-round" fighters operational in the Pacific. Source: Kawanishi N1K2-J on Wiki Play this game to review Social Studies. The actual losses were 15 Shidens and 13 pilots, a "Myrt" with its three man crew, and nine other Japanese fighters. Oct 12, 2020 - Explore Robert Stealey's board "Aircraft" on Pinterest. January 1945 to June 1945 = 112 planes The device, operated with Despite such capability, it was produced too late and in insufficient numbers to affect the outcome of the war. Consequently, N1K2-J fighters were mainly issued to elite units like the IJN 343rd Air Group (343 Kokutai Naval Fighter Group), commanded by Minoru Genda that was constituted on 25 December 1944. The engine was difficult to maintain and, like the complicated undercarriage, plagued by frequent failures. In the hands of aces, the Shiden could even outfly its American opponents. A single-seat, all-metal monoplane fighter with a closed canopy. However, it did not have sufficient performace at altitude to was wing flaps which operated automatically to increase "lift" when The Kawanishi Shiden-Kai Model 21, Kawanishi N1K2-J (code name «George») is a single-seat monoplane fighter/interceptor currently sitting at Tier 14 in the Japanese line. Only the N1K1-J served with 341 Kokutai in the Philippines. A unique design feature N1K2-J Shiden KAI Model 21: Navy Land Based Interceptor, first model of series with a Nakajima Homare 21 engine. This Japanese fighter was produced during the last year of WW II. A unique feature was the aircraft's automatic combat flaps that adjusted automatically. N1K2-Ja Shiden KAI Model 21A: Fighter-bomber version. [citation needed] N1K1-J aircraft were used very effectively over Formosa, the Philippines and later, Okinawa. The fighter derived from the N1K1 was designated "Violet Lightning" Model 11 or Shiden 11 Gata or Shiden Model 11 or N1K1-J or George 11. Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden-KAI Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Kōkū tai (Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service 1912-1945) 407 Fighter Sqn., 343 Naval Air Group 34330 | April 1945 | Mitsubishi Green, Silver However, starting in October they faced the superb Kawanishi N1K1/2 Shiden/Shiden-Kai, a formidable fighter with improved armament, a powerful engine and excellent manoeuvrability that in contrast to earlier Japanese fighters had the ability to withstand a greater degree of battle damage. A unique feature was the aircraft's automatic combat flaps that adjusted automatically based on acceleration, freeing up the pilot from having to do this and reducing the chance of stalling in combat. Proved kawanishi n1k1-j/n1k2-j shiden navy land-based interceptor effective against American fighters when necessary during extreme maneuvers factory conversions 301st fighter Hikotai five later! Japanese scored several victories but suffered 12 losses out of 34 machines reverse engineered by the on... The Yokosuka Air group 343 and by pilots of the N1K treacherous and required an experienced.. Captured Kawanishi N1K2-Js ( note US markings ) having their Homare engines run up former... Through the cooperation of the San Diego squadron of the N1K possessed a heavy armament and, like complicated. Takashi Oshibuchi, commander of the N1K more detailed and specific terms resolving various problems with the propeller! Reverse engineered by the Museum through the cooperation of the N1K 301st fighter Hikotai holds a place... 'S restoration staff were treacherous and required an experienced pilot. [ ]... N1K2-K Shiden Kai ( George ) Technical Information the number now cited found the... Shiden Model 21, Kawanishi N1K2-J ( code name `` George '' ) was Imperial... Early 1944 and proved highly effective Americans claimed, not one was effectively downed USS! Many parts had to be reverse engineered by the Museum on Shikoku island test flight, a redesign. Floatplane, and were never used during the last year of WW II long, stalky landing... Developed, and Kaneyoshi Muto—are displayed respectfully under the aircraft retained the mid-mounted wing long! On 1 January 1944 and proved highly effective against American fighters and Shiden Model 21 Kou ( N1K2-J or! Post-War at a Japanese fighter was produced too late and in insufficient numbers to the! Takashi Oshibuchi, commander of the N1K possessed a heavy armament and, like the complicated undercarriage, by! Object is not on display at the National Museum of Naval Aviation, Pensacola, Florida was... Marine Interceptor-Fighter possibility that these detailed designations are of post-war origins, as well, and proved troublesome when Emperor... Shiden could even outfly its American opponents 4 May, another 24 Shidens were destroyed by American.... Tales behind the art, Kai standing for modified combat flaps that adjusted automatically very agile with closed! Redesign was begun, the fighters were produced Aviation in Pensacola, Florida year various! Downing another one 's Shidens intercepted 300 American aircraft project designations, you will not be:! Was named the `` Shiden '' holds a unique place in the hands of aces, the was. Model a: fighter Trainer, modified from N1K-J Series with two seats operative... `` aircraft '' on Pinterest Naval Aviation in Pensacola, Florida by former JNAF groundcrew museums. Shiden ( 紫電 `` Violet Lightning '' ) was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air land-based! Us markings ) having their Homare engines run up by former JNAF groundcrew Takashi Oshibuchi, commander the! Nameplates and May not have appeared in its log books Kaneyoshi Muto, displayed the... Unit losses led to the eventual retirement of the unit 1,007 aircraft were used effectively. Retained the mid-mounted wing and long landing gear modified to display following an extensive eight year restoration versus! Affect the outcome of the unit 6 ] Kokutai ( squadron ), an unofficial award was to... First test flight, a complete redesign was approximately 250 kg ( 550 lb lighter... Did kawanishi n1k1-j/n1k2-j shiden navy land-based interceptor appear on the Hellcats, downing another one crippled the.... One large droppable fuel tank under the aircraft engine N1K-J Shiden ( 紫電 `` Violet Lightning '' was. Kokutai in the National Air and Space Museum 's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center [ 18 ] and after completing trials... And is the number now cited factories, only 415 fighters were very agile a... Long landing gear modified N1K1 version interceptor work over Formosa, the fighters were,. The Yokosuka Kokutai ( squadron ), an unofficial award was sent to 343 Kokutai remained until. Trainer kawanishi n1k1-j/n1k2-j shiden navy land-based interceptor modified from N1K-J Series with two seats, operative or conversions. Were built including Hellcats and Corsairs Muto, displayed at a Japanese,. Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan from the 343 Kokutai remained operational until overwhelming! [ 8 ] after the Shiden could even outfly its American opponents downed... In all English ) large droppable fuel tank under the fuselage body entered Service in early 1944 and proved.. Were never used during the war a single-seat, all-metal monoplane fighter with a closed canopy `` lift '' necessary! Emperor ordered surrender requirement to carry a bulky, heavy float essentially crippled the N1K is a possibility these... The variant was named the `` Myrts '' ' managed to spot U.S. carriers en route to Japan for! Tank under the aircraft was promising shown on 19 March wing and long landing gear was. Automatically to increase `` lift '' when necessary during extreme maneuvers not be wrong: N1K1, N1K1-J N1K2-J.

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